In the second half of the 19th century the economy and industry in Tallinn developed rapidly; during this period, a number of large industrial complexes were established in the city.
The first giant cotton processing factory was Narva Kreenholm Manufactory (founded in 1857) and its success and the large market of the tsarist empire laid the groundwork for the establishment of another similar factory in the Estonian province. The Baltic Cotton Spinning and Weaving Factory (abbreviated Baltic Cotton Factory) was founded in 1898.
The design project for the factory building was approved in 1899. The original design envisaged two production buildings, placed side-by-side as mirror images of each other. The north-western production building was completed and manufacturing began in March 1900. The building was divided in half, with a three-storey weaving factory at the north-east end and a four-storey spinning factory at the south-west end. Between the two was another short wing that extended out from the main building. This division of production continued until the closure of the factory in 2005.
A boiler house and power station with a smokestack was built in front of the south-east facade on the central axis of the production building. This provided power for the factory.
The Baltic Cotton Factory started work in 1900 with a little over 100 workers. By 1908. their number had increased to 2,020 and this period was the height of the factory’s success. An additional limestone wing was designed in 1908.
In addition to the production building, the director’s villa and buildings for the foremen, technicians and other workers were located here.
Production continued successfully until World War II. On 23 July 1940, the factory was nationalized.
New extensions were added during 1945-1952 to the tsarist-era production building. The extensions, with their silicate brick exterior walls, were completed in 1968. To make way for the extensions the round stairwells on the towers of the extending wing were demolished. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, additional extensions were built.
On 1 March 1995, the state owned joint-stock company Baltic Manufactory was privatized. In 2005, production in the factory came to end and the machinery and equipment were dismantled.
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